First cigarettes and tobacco were good for you, then not bad, and finally the government determined they cause cancer. Second hand smoke used to be harmless; but now the US government recognizes the harmful cancerous effects. Nuclear radiation used to be harmless; but that changed too. Are we really supposed to believe cell phone radiation and microwave radiation from the cell towers are harmless?
The following research available on the internet was not an exhaustive search. Much more probably exists, but how much evidence do you need to know a cell tower should not be built next to someone’s home or school?
In summary, these articles refer to the following potential health problems or hazards: impaired male and female reproductive function, sperm abnormalities, miscarriage, changes in eye structure and function, headache, sleep dysfunction, impaired memory, neurobehavioral disorders, head tumors, harm to the brains of rats, glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer, adverse pregnancy outcomes in various highly RF exposed occupational groups, ocular pathologies in mobile telephone users and in highly RF exposed occupational groups, decrease in sperm motility and viability, include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects, impaired visual performance and the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rats and the relationship between the impaired visual performance and RGCs apoptosis induced by microwave, lumps developed on the back of mice after being inoculated into exposed NIH/3T3 cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that microwave radiation can promote neoplastic transformation of NIH/3T3cells, brain tumors, health risks to adolescents and children, who are more sensitive to exposure, oxidative heart injury, heart impairment, retinal oxidative stress due to long-term exposure to 900 MHz EMR, and brain damage to pregnant rats. Also, some people were validly determined to be more sensitive than others to these effects.
WORLDWIDE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SAYS CELL TOWER EMISSIONS IS SUSPECTED TO OR CAN CAUSE:
Research shows use of cell phones/RF radiation negatively affects sperm’s ability to function
The aim of this article was to review the existing literature exploring the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive function in experimental animals and humans. Studies have been conducted in rats, mice, and rabbits using a similar design based upon mobile phone RF exposure for variable lengths of time. Together, the results of these studies have shown that RF-EMR decreases sperm count and motility and increases oxidative stress. In humans, 2 different experimental approaches have been followed: one has explored the effects of RF-EMR directly on spermatozoa and the other has evaluated the sperm parameters in men using or not using mobile phones. The results showed that human spermatozoa exposed to RF-EMR have decreased motility, morphometric abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress, whereas men using mobile phones have decreased sperm concentration, decreased motility (particularly rapid progressive motility), normal morphology, and decreased viability. These abnormalities seem to be directly related to the duration of mobile phone use.
Read the abstract and the entire article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799142
In 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) stated:
“Biological effects from low-level RF exposure were identified needing replication and further study. These included in vitro studies of cell kinetics and proliferation effects, effects on genes, signal transduction effects and alterations in membrane structure and function, and biophysical and biochemical mechanisms for RF field effects. In vivo studies should focus on the potential for cancer promotion, co-promotion and progression, as well as possible synergistic, genotoxic, immunological, and carcinogenic effects associated with chronic low-level RF exposure. Research is needed to determine whether low-level RF exposure causes DNA damage or influences central nervous system function, melatonin synthesis, permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), or reaction to neurotropic drugs. Reported RF-induced changes to eye structure and function should also be investigated. Epidemiological studies should investigate: the use of mobile telephones with hand-held antennae and incidence of various cancers; reports of headache, sleep disturbance, and other subjective effects that may arise from proximity to RF emitters, and laboratory studies should be conducted on people reporting these effects; cohorts with high occupational RF exposure for changes in cancer incidence; adverse pregnancy outcomes in various highly RF exposed occupational groups; and ocular pathologies in mobile telephone users and in highly RF exposed occupational groups. Studies of populations with residential exposure from point sources, such as broadcasting transmitters or mobile telephone base stations have caused widespread health concerns among the public, even though RF exposures are very low. Recent studies that may indicate an increased incidence of cancer in exposed populations should be investigated further.”
3. USA, YALE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, NEW HAVEN, CT
“An association between prenatal cellular telephone use and hyperactivity in children has been postulated, yet the direct effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on neurodevelopment remain unknown. Here we used a mouse model to demonstrate that in-utero radiofrequency exposure from cellular telephones does affect adult behavior. Mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. We present the first experimental evidence of neuropathology due to in-utero cellular telephone radiation. Further experiments are needed in humans or non-human primates to determine the risk of exposure during pregnancy…. In summary, we demonstrate that fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure led to neurobehavioral disorders in mice. We anticipate these findings will improve our understanding of the etiology of neurobehavioral disorders. The rise in behavioral disorders in developed countries may be, at least in part, due to a contribution from fetal cellular telephone radiation exposure. Further testing is warranted in humans and non-human primates to determine if the risks are similar and to establish safe exposure limits during pregnancy.”
Read the entire publication at: http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120315/srep00312/full/srep00312.html
The Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly passed Resolution 1815 in (2011) entitled “The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment” and included the following recommendations:
8.1.1. take all reasonable measures to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields, especially to radio frequencies from mobile phones, and particularly the exposure to children and young people who seem to be most at risk from head tumours;
8.1.2. reconsider the scientific basis for the present standards on exposure to electromagnetic fields set by the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection, which have serious limitations, and apply ALARA principles, covering both thermal effects and the athermic or biological effects of electromagnetic emissions or radiation;
8.1.3. put in place information and awareness-raising campaigns on the risks of potentially harmful long-term biological effects on the environment and on human health, especially targeting children, teenagers and young people of reproductive age;
8.1.4. pay particular attention to “electrosensitive” people who suffer from a syndrome of intolerance to electromagnetic fields and introduce special measures to protect them, including the creation of wave-free areas not covered by the wireless network;
In regard to the planning of electric power lines and relay antenna base stations:
8.4.1. introduce town planning measures to keep high-voltage power lines and other electric installations at a safe distance from dwellings;
8.4.2. apply strict safety standards for the health impact of electrical systems in new dwellings;
8.4.3. reduce threshold values for relay antennae in accordance with the ALARA principle and install systems for comprehensive and continuous monitoring of all antennae;
8.4.4. determine the sites of any new GSM, UMTS, WiFi or WIMAX antennae not solely according to the operators’ interests but in consultation with local and regional government authorities, local residents and associations of concerned citizens;
8.5. concerning risk assessment and precautions:
8.5.1. make risk assessment more prevention oriented;
Read more at this link: http://assembly.coe.int/mainf.asp?link=/documents/adoptedtext/ta11/eres1815.htm
In China, the department of public health determined that cell phone exposure and resulting microwave radiation for 21 days from cellular phones during pregnancy has “certain harm on fetal rat brains.” Read more at:
6. FRANCE, LYON:
PRESS RELEASE, MAY 31, 2011 ‐‐ THE WHO/INTERNATIONAL AGENCY FOR RESEARCH ON CANCER (IARC) CLASSIFIES RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AS POSSIBLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS
“The WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), based on an increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer1, associated with wireless phone use…
“Dr Jonathan Samet (University of Southern California, USA), overall Chairman of the Working Group, indicated that “the evidence, while still accumulating, is strong enough to support a conclusion and the 2B classification. The conclusion means that there could be some risk, and therefore we need to keep a close watch for a link between cell phones and cancer risk…”
Group 2A: The agent is probably carcinogenic to humans.
This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some cases, an agent may be classified in this category when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence that the carcinogenesis is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans. Exceptionally, an agent may be classified in this category solely on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. An agent may be assigned to this category if it clearly belongs, based on mechanistic considerations, to a class of agents for which one or more members have been classified in Group 1 or Group 2A.
Read the entire press release at:
7. SWITZERLAND, GERMANY, AUSTRIA:
Together these governments with the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the German and Austrian Governments jointly sponsored an international seminar in November of 1996 on the biological effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Part of their determination is as follows:
Biological effects from low-level RF exposure were identified needing replication and further study. These included in vitro studies of cell kinetics and proliferation effects, effects on genes, signal transduction effects and alterations in membrane structure and function, and biophysical and biochemical mechanisms for RF field effects. In vivo studies should focus on the potential for cancer promotion, co-promotion and progression, as well as possible synergistic, genotoxic, immunological, and carcinogenic effects associated with chronic low-level RF exposure. Research is needed to determine whether low-level RF exposure causes DNA damage or influences central nervous system function, melatonin synthesis, permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), or reaction to neurotropic drugs. Reported RF-induced changes to eye structure and function should also be investigated. Epidemiological studies should investigate: the use of mobile telephones with hand-held antennae and incidence of various cancers; reports of headache, sleep disturbance, and other subjective effects that may arise from proximity to RF emitters, and laboratory studies should be conducted on people reporting these effects; cohorts with high occupational RF exposure for changes in cancer incidence; adverse pregnancy outcomes in various highly RF exposed occupational groups; and ocular pathologies in mobile telephone users and in highly RF exposed occupational groups. Studies of populations with residential exposure from point sources, such as broadcasting transmitters or mobile telephone base stations have caused widespread health concerns among the public, even though RF exposures are very low. Recent studies that may indicate an increased incidence of cancer in exposed populations should be investigated further.
Read the rest at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9453702
8. USA, CLEVELAND, OHIO:
The Center for Reproductive Medicine, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic concluded RF waves can impair male fertility.
RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:
Samples exposed to RF-EMW showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and viability, increase in ROS level, and decrease in ROS-TAC score. Levels of TAC and DNA damage showed no significant differences from the unexposed group.
Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.
See the entire abstract and article at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804757
9. AUSTRALIA, NEW SOUTH WALES:
Researchers at ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, Callaghan, in New South Wales Australia studied oxidative stress in human spermatozoa cells. They state that EMF radiation not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro.
Conclusion: RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring.
Read the rest at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19649291
10. SWEDEN, OREBRO:
The Department of Oncology, University Hospital in Obero gave an opinion about public policy and EMF radiation.
“Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at www.bioinitiative.org.”
Read the abstract at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18242044
11. CHINA, BEJING:
“There has been growing concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to microwave radiations, such as those emitted by mobile phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular neoplastic transformation effects of electromagnetic fields. 916 MHz continuous microwave was employed in our study to simulate the electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone. NIH/3T3 cells were adopted in our experiment due to their sensitivity to carcinogen or cancer promoter in environment. They were divided randomly into one control group and three microwave groups. The three microwave groups were exposed to 916 MHz EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2), respectively, in which 10 w/m(2) was close to intensity near the antenna of mobile phone. The morphology and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were examined and furthermore soft agar culture and animal carcinogenesis assay were carried out to determine the neoplastic promotion. Our experiments showed NIH/3T3 cells changed in morphology and proliferation after 5-8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into exposed NIH/3T3 cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that microwave radiation can promote neoplastic transformation of NIH/3T3cells.”
Read more at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22395787
12. CHINA, CHONQUING:
Researchers at the Key Laboratory of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation Ministry of Education, Third Military Medical University investigated “the injury effects of microwave on the visual performance and the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rats and the relationship between the impaired visual performance and RGCs apoptosis induced by microwave.”
They concluded that “microwave exposure can injure the visual performance of rats, and the apoptosis of RGCs induced microwave may be one of the main pathological mechanisms.”
Read more at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22804882
13. ITALY, ROME:
A review of literature on cell phone radiation at Facoltà di Scienze, Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali, Sapienza Università di Roma states:
“The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the “precautionary principle” including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries.”
Read the entire article at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22670334
14. TURKEY, ISPARTA:
The Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey studied the effect of coffee on mobile phone-induced myocardial oxidative stress.
They examined “900 MHz mobile phone-induced oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the role of CAPE on myocardial tissue against possible oxidative damage in rats. Thirty rats were used in the study. Animals were randomly grouped as follows: sham-operated control group (N: 10) and experimental groups: (a) group II: 900 MHz EMR exposed group (N: 10); and (b) group III: 900 MHz EMR exposed+CAPE-treated group (N: 10). A 900 MHz EMR radiation was applied to groups II and III 30 min/day, for 10 days using an experimental exposure device. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation), and nitric oxide (NO, a marker of oxidative stress) were used as markers of oxidative stress-induced heart impairment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status. In the EMR exposed group, while tissue MDA and NO levels increased, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities were reduced. CAPE treatment in group III reversed these effects. In this study, the increased levels of MDA and NO and the decreased levels of myocardial SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities demonstrate the role of oxidative mechanisms in 900 MHz mobile phone-induced heart tissue damage, and CAPE, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative heart injury. These results show that CAPE exhibits a protective effect on mobile phone-induced and free radical mediated oxidative heart impairment in rats.”
Read the entire article at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16342473
15. TURKEY, ISPARTA:
This fascinating study at the Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, compared melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of honeybee propolis. Melatonin and CAPE were recently found to be potent free radical scavengers and antioxidants to counter the effect of retinal oxidative stress due to long-term exposure to 900 MHz EMR emitting from mobile phones. Of course, the existence of “Retinal Oxidative Stress” must be acknowledged before it can be studied.
Read the abstract and article at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16317515
16. CHINA, SHANDONG:
“The increasing use of cellular phones in our society has brought focus on the potential detrimental effects to human health by microwave radiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative stress and the level of neurotransmitters in the brains of fetal rats chronically exposed to cellular phones. The experiment was performed on pregnant rats exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones…” Significant differences were found in regard to the amount of time rats were exposed. The researchers concluded:
“Through this study, we concluded that receiving a certain period of microwave radiation from cellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.”